The Origin and Development of World Papermaking Blankets

- Dec 12, 2017-

The earliest blanket production in the world started in ancient Greece between 900 BC, but at the time the blankets were not made for papermaking. At that time the Greeks spread the fuzz of other fibers, such as wool and camel hair, into felt, which people call "Felt." The felt can be used as a helmet liner for hats, blankets and soldiers, thicker blankets for soldiers' armor and clothing and tents for ancient nomadic tribesmen. In 105 AD, Cai Lun, the eunuch of the Eastern Han Dynasty in China, invented the world's earliest papermaking art. The paper he made using handmade techniques was very similar to the paper used by the modern people. It can be said that at that time a revolutionary creation was also called the ancient Chinese One of the "four great inventions". About 500 years later, this method of making paper was introduced to Asia and South Korea and Japan. Only about 1,000 years later, it was introduced to Europe by the Silk Road and rapidly developed and increased in Europe. By the 11th century, handmade paper sheets had been used in hand-made papermaking in Europe, and the blankets were used as a leading device in the production of paper and as a device to squeeze wet paper sheets to remove moisture. Handmade paper is to let the fiber after fishing and evenly distributed in the bottom frame with a mesh cloth to form a wet paper, and so on most of the water filter off, and then the mold pressed to the blanket, wet paper page Transfer from the mold or "lead" to (transfer) the blanket. Then squeeze the wet paper sheet and the blanket off the excess water, and finally dry the paper sheet. Demand for blankets in the paper industry has prompted people to create paper-based blankets, so people are inspired by the way they produce everyday blankets and use similar methods (techniques) to make early paper-based blankets. Then in the popularization of advanced papermaking in Europe at the same time, the world has only introduced the manufacturing technology of paper-making blankets. Since then the paper and the blanket have a close relationship. But the invention of papermaking was more than 1,000 years earlier than the production and use of felts.

Early paper carpets were made from animal hairs, such as wool. Wool is characterized by a high degree of elastic recovery in the wet state, has good moisture absorption properties, and has a good shrinkage (refers to the fabric immersed in alkali or acid solution, the properties of the fibers wrapped together shrinking) . By the eighteenth century, the woven wool blankets were again milled or felted. The treated felts were firm and soft, capable of quickly absorbing water and easily draining, and were mainly used for manual papermaking. In 30 to 50 years after Louis Robert invented the first paper machine in 1799, when manual papermaking almost disappeared, the first time the wool factory made a single piece of paper for the paper mill , And then sewed the two ends into a circular blanket made of a paper machine, from which a special blanket for mechanical papermaking was born. By the second half of the 19th century, some companies started producing ring-shaped blankets, but the design of the blankets was still relatively simple. As the printing industry has become increasingly demanding on the quality of paper, the printing properties of the paper surface have become even more important, and to meet this requirement, the yarns and new weaving methods used to weave blankets have also been studied accordingly And improve. The Western Industrial Revolution also promoted the further development of the paper industry, the improvement of the structure of the paper machine and put forward new requirements on the blanket. In 1911, people first used chemical treatment methods to improve the service life of blankets and continuously improve the structure and production technology of blankets to adapt to the continuous improvement of paper machine speed. In the 1950s, synthetic fibers (ie, synthetic fibers) developed during the Second World War were used as raw materials for the production of paper-based carpets. The ultimate goal was to reduce the use of ordinary wool, thereby reducing production costs and improving the quality of the carpets performance. The most commonly used synthetic fibers are nylon and polyester, which differ in their properties. Polyamide has the characteristics of alkali-resistant and acid-resistant. Polyester is acid-resistant, alkali-resistant and heat-resistant. Both of them have chlorine-resistant and anti-microbial properties. It has been found through practice that the felts produced from these synthetic fibers are excellent Pure wool blankets. The use of wool together with synthetic fibers helps to improve the strength and durability of the felt, and initially the content of synthetic fibers in the pressed felt stays at around 30%, mainly because these synthetic fibers were not yet felted by conventional methods Or shrink it. During this period the paper-making blankets are all traditional woven felt (Conventional Felt), is the first of the 

A generation of products, its production method is through spinning, weaving blankets, shrinking, Mao Mao and other processes made. Woven carpet structure is characterized by vertical and horizontal yarn are woven, and then use the mechanical method of down, made the final state of the finished product. The fiber is mainly made of wool, with a small amount of synthetic fiber. By 1960, the advent of Batt-On-Base Papermaking Felt (BOB felt) made it possible to felze the carpet by mechanical means and the content of synthetic fibers in production increased year by year. By 1970, the average content of synthetic fibers in press press felt was a minimum of 50%, culminating in the development of fully synthetic acupuncture flocked felts, which have higher strength and stability. BOB blanket for the second generation of paper-making blanket products, the structure is characterized by vertical and horizontal are woven into a base fabric, and then one or both sides of the base cloth on the wool netting and made of blankets, fabric and netting All are 100% synthetic fibers. The 1968 Batt-On-Mesh Papermaking Felt (BOM) was developed based on the principle of liner press. In the lining press, the wet paper into the press area, the paper in the vertical direction of the water from the network out of pores, dehydration resistance is small, squeezed from the wet paper to remove more moisture, and Increase the dryness of the paper. Later, technicians from paper mills and blanket factories worked together to design and produce a composite needle-punched felt with mesh and carpet, which became the third generation of needled felt. The structure of the BOM blanket is characterized in that: the bottom net is made by using different weaving technologies longitudinally and transversely, the longitudinal multi-filament chemical fiber material is used, the monofilament or multifilament composite fiber material is transversely used, and the netting is spun on both sides of the bottom net Made of blankets, bottom net and hair net are 100% synthetic fiber. Begin with the use of thicker polyester monofilament woven into the bottom of the net, the nature of the hard, although good water filtration, long life, but the set of paper towels is very difficult. So far has been gradually using nylon monofilament joint net, the production is very easy to use, with good flexibility, dehydration fast, stable specifications. Today, with the rapid development of the papermaking industry, more than 95% of the papermaking machines supporting the papermaking blankets are BOM papermaking blankets, there are still some backward production conditions of the paper machine, some special papermaking machines and the production of some special When using paper, some special paper-making felts are still needed